RE-VISITING THE SINGULARITY OF THE NATIONAL LIBERATION
STRUGGLE IN THE PHILIPPINES
by E. SAN JUAN, Jr.
When U.S. occupation troops in Iraq continued to suffer casualties every day after the war officially ended, academics and journalists began in haste to supply capsule histories comparing their situation with those of troops in the Philippines during the Filipino-American War (1899-1902). A New York Times essay summed up the lesson in its title, “In 1901 Philippines, Peace Cost More Lives Than Were Lost in War” (2 July 2003, B1)), while an article in the Los Angeles Times contrasted the simplicity of McKinley’s “easy” goal of annexation (though at the cost of 4,234 U.S. soldiers killed and 3,000 wounded) with George W. Bush’s ambition to “create a new working democracy as soon as possible” (20 July 2003, M2). Reviewing the past is instructive, of course, but we should always place it in the context of present circumstances in the Philippines and in the international arena. What is the real connection between the Philippines and the current U.S. war against terrorism?
With the death of Martin Burnham, the hostage held by Muslim kidnappers called the “Abu Sayyaf” in Mindanao, the southern island of the Philippines, one would expect more than 1,200 American troops (including FBI and CIA personnel) training Filipinos for that rescue mission to be heading for home in late 2002. Instead of being recalled, reinforcements have been brought in and more joint military exercises announced in the future. Since September 11, 2001, U.S. media and Filipino government organs have dilated on the Abu Sayyaf’s tenuous links with Osama bin Laden. A criminal gang that uses Islamic slogans to hide its kidnapping-for-ransom activities, the Abu Sayyaf is a splinter group born out of the U.S. war against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan and used by the government to sow discord among the insurgent partisans of the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Protected by local politicians and military officials, the Abu Sayyaf’s persistence betokens the complicated history of the centuries-long struggle of more than ten million Muslims in the Philippines for dignity, justice, and self-determination.
What is behind the return of the former colonizer to what was once called its “insular territory” administered then by the Bureau of Indian Affairs? With Secretary Colin Powell’s decision to stigmatize as “terrorist” the major insurgent groups that have been fighting for forty years for popular democracy and independence—the Communist Party of the Philippines and the New People’s Army, part of a coalition called the National Democratic Front, the introduction of thousands of U.S. troops, weapons, logistics, and supporting personnel has become legitimate. More is involved than simply converting the archipelago to instant military bases and facilities for the U.S. military—a bargain exchange for the strategic outposts Clark Air Base and Subic Naval Base that were scrapped by a resurgent Filipino nationalism a decade ago. With the military officials practically managing the executive branch of government, the Philippine nation-state will prove to be more an appendage of the Pentagon than a humdrum neocolony administered by oligarchic compradors (a “cacique democracy,” in the words of Benedict Anderson), which it has been since nominal independence in 1946. On the whole, Powell’s stigmatizing act is part of the New American Century Project to reaffirm a new pax Americana after the Cold War
Immediately after the proclaimed defeat of the Taliban and the rout of Osama bin Laden’s forces in Afghanistan, the Philippines became the second front in the U.S.-led war on terrorism. Raymond Bonner, author of Waltzing with Dictators (1987), argues that the reason for this second front is “the desire for a quick victory over terrorism,… the wish to reassert American power in Southeast Asia….If Washington’s objective is to wipe out the international terrorist organizations that pose a threat to world stability, the Islamic terrorist groups operating in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir would seem to be a higher priority than Abu Sayyaf” (New York Times, 10 June 2002). Or those in Indonesia, a far richer and promising region in terms of oil and other abundant natural resources. As in the past, during the Huk rebellion in the Philippines in the Cold War years, the U.S. acted as “the world’s policemen,” aiding the local military in “civic action” projects to win “hearts and minds,” a rehearsal for Vietnam. The Stratfor Research Group believes that Washington is using the Abu Sayyaf as a cover for establishing a “forward logistics and operation base” in southeast Asia in order to be able to conduct swift pre-emptive strikes against enemies in Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, China, and elsewhere.
Overall, however, the intervention of U.S. Special Forces in solving a local problem inflamed Filipino sensibilities, its collective memory still recovering from the nightmare of the U.S.-supported brutal Marcos dictatorship. What disturbed everyone was the Cold-War practice of “Joint Combined Exchange Training” exercises. In South America and Africa, such U.S. foreign policy initiatives merged with counter-insurgency operations that chanelled military logistics and equipment to favored regimes notorious for flagrant human rights violations. In Indonesia during the Suharto regime, for example, U.S. Special Operations Forces trained government troops accused by Amnesty International of kidnapping and torture of activists, especially in East Timor and elsewhere. In El Salvador, Colombia and Guatemala, the U.S. role in organizing death squads began with Special Operations Forces advisers who set up “intelligence networks” ostensibly against the narcotics trade but also against leftist insurgents and nationalists. During the Huk uprising in the Philippines, Col. Edward Lansdale, who later masterminded the Phoenix atrocities in Vietnam, rehearsed similar counter-insurgency techniques combined with other anticommunist tricks of the trade. Now U.S. soldiers in active combat side by side with Filipinos will pursue the “terrorists” defined by the U.S. State Department—guerillas of the New People’s Army, Moro resistance fighters, and other progressive sectors of Filipino society.
Are we seeing American troops in the boondocks (bundok, in the original Tagalog, means “mountain”) again? Are we experiencing a traumatic attack of déjà vu? A moment of reflection returns us to what Bernard Fall called “the first Vietnam,” the Filipino-American War of 1899-1902, in which at least 1.4 million Filipinos. The campaign to conquer the Philippines was designed in accordance with President McKinley’s policy of “Benevolent Assimilation” of the uncivilized and unchristian natives, a “civilizing mission” that Mark Twain considered worthy of the Puritan settlers and the pioneers in the proverbial “virgin land.” In Twain’s classic prose: “Thirty thousand killed a million. It seems a pity that the historian let that get out; it is really a most embarrassing circumstance.” This was a realization of the barbarism that Henry Adams feared before Admiral George Dewey entered Manila Bay on 1 May 1898: “I turn green in bed at midnight if I think of the horror of a year’s warfare in the Philippines where…we must slaughter a million or two of foolish Malays in order to give them the comforts of flannel petticoats and electric trailways.”
In “Benevolent Assimilation”: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903 (1982), Stuart Creighton Miller recounts the U.S. military’s “scorched earth” tactics in Samar and Batangas, atrocities from “search and destroy” missions reminiscent of Song My and My Lai in Vietnam. This episode in the glorious history of Empire is usually accorded a marginal footnote, or a token paragraph in school textbooks. Miller only mentions in passing the U.S. attempt to subjugate the unhispanized Moros, the Muslim Filipinos in Mindanao and Sulu islands. On March 9, 1906, four years after President Theodore Roosevelt declared the war over, Major General Leonard Wood, commanding five hundred and forty soldiers, killed a beleaguered group of six hundred Muslim men, women and children in the battle of Mount Dajo. A less publicized but horrific battle occurred on June 13, 1913, when the Muslim sultanate of Sulu mobilized about 5,000 followers (men, women and children) against the American troops led by Capt. John Pershing. The battle of Mount Bagsak, 25 kilometers east of Jolo City, ended with the death of 340 Americans and of 2,000 (some say 3000) Moro defenders. Pershing was true to form—earlier he had left a path of destruction in Lanao, Samal Island, and other towns where local residents fought his incursions. Anyone who resisted U.S. aggression was either a “brigand” or seditious bandit. The carnage continued up to the “anti-brigandage” campaigns of the first three decades which suppressed numerous peasant revolts and workers’ strikes against the colonial state and its local agencies.
With the help of the U.S. sugar-beet lobby, the Philippine Commonwealth of 1935 was established, constituted with a compromise mix of laws and regulations then being tried in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii. Eventually the islands became a model of a pacified neocolony. Except perhaps for Miller’s aforementioned book and assorted studies, nothing much about the revealing effects of that process of subjugation of Filipinos have registered in the American Studies archive. This is usually explained by the theory that the U.S. did not follow the old path of European colonialism, and its war against Spain was pursued to liberate the natives from Spanish tyranny. If so, that war now rescued from the dustbin of history signaled the advent of a globalizing U.S. interventionism whose latest manifestation, in a different historical register, is Bush’s “National Security Strategy” of “exercising self-defense [of the Homeland] by acting preemptively,” assuming that might is right.
The revolutionary upsurge in the Philippines against the Marcos dictatorship (1972-1986) stirred up dogmatic Cold War complacency. With the inauguration of a new stage in Cultural Studies in the nineties, the historical reality of U.S. imperialism (the genocide of Native Americans is replayed in the subjugation of the inhabitants of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Cuba) is finally being excavated and re-appraised. But this is, of course, a phenomenon brought about by a confluence of multifarious events, among them: the demise of the Soviet Union as a challenger to U.S. hegemony; the sublation of the Sixties in both Fukuyama’s “end of history” and the interminable “culture wars,” the Palestininan intifadas; the Zapatista revolt against NAFTA; the heralding of current anti-terrorism by the Gulf War; and the fabled “clash of civilizations.” Despite these changes, the old frames of intelligibility have not been modified or reconfigured to understand how nationalist revolutions in the colonized territories cannot be confused with the nationalist patriotism of the dominant or hegemonic metropoles, or how the mode of U.S. imperial rule in the twentieth century differs in form and content from those of the British or French in the nineteenth century. The received consensus of a progressive modernizing influence from the advanced industrial powers remains deeply entrenched. Even postcolonial and postmodern thinkers commit the mistake of censuring the decolonizing projects of the subalternized peoples because these projects (in the superior gaze of these thinkers) have been damaged, or are bound to become perverted into despotic postcolonial regimes, like those in Ghana, Algeria, Vietnam, the Philippines, and elsewhere. The only alternative, it seems, is to give assent to the process of globalization under the aegis of the World Bank/IMF/WTO, and hope for a kind of “benevolent assimilation.”
What remains to be carefully considered, above all, is the historical specificity or singularity of each of these projects of national liberation, their class composition, historical roots, programs, ideological tendencies, and political agendas within the context of colonial/imperial domination. It is not possible to pronounce summary judgments on the character and fate of nationalist movements in the peripheral formations without focusing on the complex manifold relations between colonizer and colonized, the dialectical interaction between their forces as well as others caught in the conflict. Otherwise, the result would be a disingenuous ethical utopianism such as that found in U.S. postnationalist and postcolonialist discourse which, in the final analysis, functions as an apology for the ascendancy of the transnational corporate powers embedded in the nation-states of the North, and for the hegemonic rule of the only remaining superpower claiming to act in the name of freedom and democracy.
The case of the national-democratic struggle in the Philippines may be taken as an example of one historic singularity. Because of the historical specificity of the Philippines’ emergence as a dependent nation-state controlled by the United States in the twentieth century, nationalism as a mass movement has always been defined by events of anti-imperialist rebellion. U.S. conquest entailed long and sustained violent suppression of the Filipino revolutionary forces for decades. The central founding “event” (as the philosopher Alain Badiou would define the term) is the 1896 revolution against Spain and its sequel, the Filipino-American war of 1899-1902, and the Moro resistance up to 1914 against U.S. colonization. Another political sequence of events is the Sakdal uprising in the thirties during the Commonwealth period followed by the Huk uprising in the forties and fifties—a sequence that is renewed in the First Quarter Storm of 1970 against the neocolonial state. While the feudal oligarchy and the comprador class under U.S. patronage utilized elements of the nationalist tradition formed in 1896-1898 as their ideological weapon for establishing moral-intellectual leadership, their attempts have never been successful. Propped by the Pentagon-supported military, the Arroyo administration today, for example, uses the U.S. slogan of democracy against terrorism and the fantasies of the neoliberal free market to legitimize its continued exploitation of workers, peasants, women and ethnic minorities. Following a long and tested tradition of grassroots mobilization, Filipino nationalism has always remained centered on the peasantry’s demand for land closely tied to the popular-democratic demand for equality and genuine sovereignty.
For over a century now, U.S.-backed developmentalism and modernization have utterly failed in the Philippines. The resistance against globalized capital and its neoliberal extortions is spearheaded today by a national-democratic mass movement of various ideological persuasions. There is also a durable Marxist-led insurgency that seeks to articulate the “unfinished revolution” of 1896 in its demand for national independence against U.S. control and social justice for the majority of citizens (80 million) ten percent of whom are now migrant workers abroad. Meanwhile, the Muslim community in the southern part of the Philippines initiated its armed struggle for self-determination during the Marcos dictatorship (1972-1986) and continues today as a broadly based movement for autonomy, despite the Islamic ideology of its teacher-militants. Recalling the genocidal U.S. campaigns cited above, BangsaMoro nationalism cannot forget its Muslim singularity which is universalized in the principles of equality, justice, and the right to self-determination. In the wake of past defeats of peasant revolts, the Filipino culture of nationalism constantly renews its anti-imperialist vocation by mobilizing new forces (women and church people in the sixties, and the indigenous or ethnic minorities in the seventies and eighties). It is organically embedded in emancipatory social and political movements whose origin evokes in part the Enlightenment narrative of sovereignty as mediated by third-world nationalist movements (Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh, Mao) but whose sites of actualization are the local events of mass insurgency against continued U.S. hegemony. The Philippines as an “imagined” and actually experienced ensemble of communities, or multiplicities in motion, remains in the process of being constructed primarily through modes of political and social resistance against corporate transnationalism (or globalization, in the trendy parlance) and its technologically mediated ideologies, fashioning thereby the appropriate cultural forms of dissent, resistance, and subversion worthy of its people’s history and its collective vision.
ABOUT E. SAN JUAN, Jr.
E. SAN JUAN, Jr. is director of the Philippines Cultural Studies Center and co-director of the Board of Philippine Forum, New York City. He was recently a visiting professor of literature and cultural studies at National Tsing Hua University and Fulbright professor of American Studies at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium. He was a Rockefeller Foundation research fellow at the Bellagio Center, Italy (Fall 2006), and will be senior fellow of the W.E. B. Du Bois Center, Harvard University, in Spring 2009.
San Juan was a fellow of the Center for the Humanities, Wesleyan University, and chair of the Department of Comparative American Cultures, Washington State University; and professor of Ethnic Studies, Bowling Green State University, Ohio. He was previously visiting professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Trento, Italy, and at the Graduate School of Tamkang University, Taiwan.
San Juan received his graduate degrees in English & Comparative Literature from Harvard University. He taught at the University of the Philippines, University of Connecticut, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, and the University of California. He has received awards from the Rockefeller Foundation, Institute for Society and Culture (Ohio), MELUS (Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States), Gustav Myers Human Rights Center, and the Association for Asian American Studies. He received a Centennial Award for Literature from the Cultural Center of the Philippines.
San Juan’s most recent works are Hegemony and Strategies of Transgression (SUNY Press), Beyond Postcolonial Theory (Palgrave), From Exile to Diaspora (Westview Press), After Postcolonialism (Rowman and Littlefield), Working Through the Contradictions: From Cultural Theory to Critical Practice (Bucknell University Press), and Racism and Cultural Studies (Duke University Press), and the groundbreaking book, Racial Formations/Critical Transformations (Humanities Press). Two recent books are: In the Wake of Terror (Lexington Books), US Imperialism and Revolution in the Philippines (Palgrave Macmillan), Balikbayang Sinta (Ateneo University Press), From Globalization to National Liberation (University of the Philippines Press).
San Juan’s recent books in Filipino are Tinik sa Kaluluwa (Anvil), Himagsik (De La Salle University Press) and Sapagkat Iniibig Kita (U.P. Press). His works have been translated into Chinese, Spanish, Russian, German, French, Italian, and other languages.
EPIFANIO SAN JUAN, Jr.
126 College Hill Road, #2
Clinton, NY 13323, USA
E-mail: email@example.com <firstname.lastname@example.org>
1958 A.B. magna cum laude University of the Philippines
1962 A.M. Harvard University
1965 Ph.D. Harvard University
1965-66 Assistant Professor, University of California, Davis
1966-67 Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literature, University of the Philippines
1967-79 Associate Professor of English, The University of Connecticut, Storrs
1977-79 Professor of Comparative Literature, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York
1987-88 Fulbright Professor of American Literature and Criticism, University of the Philippines and Ateneo de Manila University
1979-1994 Professor of English and Comparative Literature, The University of Connecticut, Storrs
1994-1998 Professor of Ethnic Studies, Bowling Green State University, Ohio
1998-2001 Professor and Chair, Department of Comparative American Cultures,
Washington State University, Pullman
2001- Director, Philippines Cultural Studies Center, Connecticut
2002 Fellow of the Center for the Humanities, and Visiting Professor of English, Wesleyan
2003 Fulbright Professor of American Studies, Belgium (Universities of Leuven &
2004 National Science Council Fellow, National Tsing Hua University, Republic of China (Taiwan)
2006 Fellow, Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center Study (Fall 2006)
2008 (Spring) Visiting Professor of English & Comparative Literature, University of the Philippines
1960-63 Fulbright-Smith Mundt Fellowship
1961-63 Teaching Fellow, Harvard University
1964 Comparative Literature Prize, Harvard University
1965 Howard Mumford Jones Award for Best Work in English, Harvard University
1963-65 Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship
1987-88 Fulbright Lectureship in the Philippines
1993 Fellow, The Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities, University of
1993 1993 National Book Award, Association for Asian American Studies
1993 Distinguished Book Award given by Gustavus Myers Human Rights Center
1994 Nominated for the Citizens’ Chair, University of Hawaii
1994 Katherine Newman Award, Society for the Study of Multi-Ethnic Literatures of the United States
1995 Visiting Professor of English, University of Trento, Italy
1995 Scholar in Residence, Institute for the Study of Culture, Society, and Human
Values, Bowling Green State University
1999 Centennial Award for Achievement in Literature, Philippine Cultural Center,
Republic of the Philippines
2000 Visiting Chair Professor, Graduate School, Tamkang University, Taiwan
2001 Keynote Speaker, College English Association (CEA) 2002 Annual Convention
2002 Invited Speaker, American Studies Institute, Dartmouth College, June 2002
2003 Invited Participant, Workshop on Cultural Nationalism, University of Victoria, Canada; Keynote
2004 Speaker, 12th International Symposium on English Teaching, English Teachers Association, Republic of China, Nov. 7-9, Taipeh, Taiwan; Keynote Speaker, Ninth Quadrennial International Conference on Comparative Literature, National Taiwan University, 19 June 2004
2005 Awarded Cener for Humanities and the Arts Visiting Scholar, University of Colorado,
(Spring 2004; declined) Invited Keynote Lecturer, Open University, Arbeiterbildungszentrum, Gelsenkirche, Germany, Oct. 2, 2004
2004 Invited lecturer at 7 universities in Taiwan: Tsing Hua University, Chiaotung University,
Kaohsiung Normal University, Sun-Yat Sen University, National Kaohsiung University, National ChungHsing University, National Normal University, Taipeh
2007 Keynote Speaker, “Gramsci Now”: International Gramsci Conference, Michigan State
University, 9-11 November
SELECTED PUBLICATIONS (excluding reviews and creative works)
1. The Art of Oscar Wilde. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967; reprinted 1978 by Greenwood Press, Inc. Chapter V reprinted in Harold Bloom, ed., Oscar Wilde Modern Critical Views (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988), 45-76. The chapter on “The Ballad of Reading Gaol” reprinted in Wege der Forschung–Oscar Wilde, ed. Norbert Kohl (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftlichen Buchgesellschaft, 1985). The chapter on The Importance of Being Earnest translated into German in Interpretationen, ed. Willy Erzgraber. Frankfurt: Fischer Bucherei, 1969.
2. Rice Grains: Selected Poems of Amado V. Hernandez. Translated from the original Tagalog. New York: International Publishers, 1966.
3. Balagtas: Art and Revolution (A Critical Study of Florante at Laura). Quezon City: Manlapaz, 1969. Reprinted in Patricia Cruz and A. Chua, eds., Himalay (Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, l988).
4. A Casebook of T. S. Eliot’s Gerontion. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill, 1970.
5. The Radical Tradition in Philippine Literature. Quezon City: Manlapaz, 1970.
6. Critics on Ezra Pound. Coral Gables: Miami University Press, 1971.
7. James Joyce and the Craft of Fiction. New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1972.
8. Marxism and Human Liberation: Selected Essays by Georg Lukacs. New York: Dell, 1972.
9. Carlos Bulosan and the Imagination of the Class Struggle. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, 1972; reprinted by Oriole Editions, New York, 1975.
10. Preface to Pilipino Literature. Quezon City: Phoenix, 1972.
11. Introduction to Modern Pilipino Literature. Boston: Twayne, 1974.
12. Poetics: The Imitation of Action. Cranbury, N.J.: Associated University Press, 1978.
13. Balagtas: Florante/Laura. Translated from the original Tagalog. Manila: Art Multiples, Inc., 1978.
14. Bulosan: An Introduction with Selections. Manila: National Book Store, 1983.
15. Toward a People’s Literature: Essays in the Dialectics of Praxis and Contradiction in Philippine Writing. Quezon City: U.P. Press, 1984. Winner of the Catholic Mass Media Award, 1985; and the National Book Award given by the Manila Critics Circle, 1985.
16. Crisis in the Philippines: The Making of a Revolution. South Hadley, Mass.:Bergin and Garvey, 1986. Chapter III reprinted in Tricontinental (Habana, Cuba) No. 129 (May-June 1990): 46-57.
17. Subversions of Desire: Prolegomena to Nick Joaquin. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1988; Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1988. “Preface” reprinted as “Preface to the Nick Joaquin Project,” Southeast Asia Journal 17.2 (1988-89): 8-13.
18. Transcending the Hero / Reinventing the Heroic: An Essay on Andre Gide’s Theater. New York & London: University Press of America, 1988.
19. Ruptures, Schisms, Interventions: Cultural Revolution in the Third World. Manila: De La Salle University Press, 1988.
20. Only by Struggle: Reflections on Philippine Culture, Society and History in a Time of Civil War. Manila: Kalikasan Press, 1989. Reissued in an expanded form: Only by Struggle: Reflections on Philippine Culture, Politics and Society. Quezon City, Philippines: Giraffe Books, 2002.
21. From People to Nation: Essays in Cultural Politics. Manila: Asian Social Institute, Inc., 1990.
22. Text Context Society and Critical Theory. Occasional Monograph 1. Manila, Philippines: Asian Social Institute, Inc., 1990.
23. Writing and National Liberation: Selected Essays 1970-90. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1991.
24. Racial Formation/Critical Transformations: Articulations of Power in Ethnic and Racial Studies in the U. S. New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1992. Winner of the 1993 National Book Award from Association for Asian American Studies; 1993 Distinguished Book Award, Gustavus Myers Center for Human Rights.
25. Reading the West/Writing the East: Studies in Comparative Literature and Culture. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1992.
26. From the Masses, to the Masses: Third World Literature and Revolution. Minneapolis: MEP Press, 1994.
27. The Smile of the Medusa and Other Fictions. Quezon City: Anvil Publishing Co., 1994.
28. Allegories of Resistance. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1994.
29. On Becoming Filipino: Selected Writings by Carlos Bulosan. With an introduction. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995.
30. The Cry and the Dedication by Carlos Bulosan. With an introduction. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995.
31. Hegemony and Strategies of Transgression: Essays in Cultural Studies and Comparative Literature. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1995.
31. The Philippine Temptation: Dialectics of Philippines-U.S. Literary Relations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.
32. Mediations: From a Filipino Perspective. Quezon City, Philippines: Anvil Publishing, 1996.
33. History and Form: Selected Essays. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1996.
34. Rizal: A Re-Interpretation. Quezon City: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 1997.
35. From Exile to Diaspora: Versions of the Filipino Experience in the United States. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press/HarperCollins, 1998.
36. Beyond Postcolonial Theory. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
37. Filipina Insurgency: Writing Against Patriarchy in the Philippines. Quezon City: Giraffe Books, 1999.
38. Alay Sa Paglikha ng Bukang-Liwayway [Collected poems in Filipino/Pilipino]. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2000.
38. After Postcolonialism: Remapping Philippines-United States Confrontation. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Co., 2000.
39. Racism and Cultural Studies: Critiques of Multiculturalist Ideology and the Politics of Difference. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.
40. Spinoza and the Terror of Racism. UK: Sheffield Hallam University Press, 2002. A revised version appeared as “Spinoza, Marx and the Terror of Racism,” Nature, Society, and Thought 16.2 (2003), 193-230.
41. Working through the Contradictions: From Cultural Theory to Critical Practice. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2004.
42. Filipinos Everywhere. Quezon City: IBON, 2006,
43. In the Wake of Terror: Class, Race, Nation, Ethnicity in the PostModern World. Maryland: Lexington Books, 2007.
44. U.S. Imperialism and Revolution in the Philippines. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
ARTICLES (Selected, excluding creative writing)
1. “Vision and Reality: A Reconsideration of Sherwood Anderson’s Winesburg, Ohio,” American Literature, XXXV (May 1963), 137-155; reprinted in Winesburg, Ohio, ed. John Ferres (New York: Viking, 1967).
2. “Matthew Arnold and the Poetics of Belief: Some Implications of Literature and Dogma,” The Harvard Theological Review, 57 (April 1964), 97-118.
3. “Material versus Totality of Literary Devices,” Discourse, VII (Summer 1964), 295-302.
4. “James’s The Ambassadors: The Trajectory of the Climax,” The Midwest Quarterly, V (July 1964), 293-310.
5. “William James as Prose Writer,” The Centennial Review, VIII (Summer 1964), 323-336.
6. “Toward a Definition of Victorian Activism,” Studies in English Literature, IV (Autumn 1964), 583-600; Reprinted in Victorian Literature: Recent Revaluations, ed. S. Kumar. New York: New York UP, 1968.
7. “The Question of Values in Victorian Activism,” The Personalist, XLV (Winter 1964), 41-59.
8. “The Actual and the Ideal in Dr. Johnson’s Dictionary,” University of Toronto Quarterly, XXXIV (Jan. 1965), 146-158. Included in Critical Perspectives, Volume V, edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea Books, 1987.
9. “What is Balagtas’ ‘To Celia’ All About? An Experiment in Interpretation,” University College Journal, VII (1964-65), 48-63.
10. “Gosse and Gibbon: Two Witnesses of Interior Reality,” Discourse, VII (Autumn 1964), 399-403.
11. “The Significance of Andre Gide’s Oedipus,” Modern Drama, VII (Feb. 1965), 422-430; reprinted in Oedipus: Myth and Dramatic Form, ed. J. Sanderson and E. Zimmerman. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968.
12. “Samuel Johnson as Lyric Poet,” The Diliman Review, XIII (Jan. 1965), 55-65.
13. “Proud: Anatomy of a Complex Word,” Philippine Social Science and Humanities Review, XXX (March 1965), 183-193.
14. “Ben Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair and the Renaissance Crisis,” The Diliman Review, XIII (April 1965), 183-193.
15. “Spatial Orientation in American Romanticism,” The East-West Review, II (Spring-Summer 1965), 33-55.
16. “The Anti-Poetry of Jonathan Swift,” The Philological Quarterly, XLIV (July 1965), 387-396. Reprinted in David Vieth, ed. Essential Articles for the Study of Jonathan Swift’s Poetry. CT: Archon Books, 1985, 21-32.
17. “Social Consciousness and Revolt in Modern Philippine Poetry,” Books Abroad (Autumn 1965), 394-399.
18. “Pattern and Significance in Two Plays of Andre Gide,” Discourse, VIII (Autumn 1965), 350-369.
19. “The World of Abadilla,” Introduction to Alejandro G. Abadilla, Mga Piling Tula [Collected Poems]. Manila: Panitikan, 1965, 1-14.
20. “The Idea of Andre Gide’s Theater,” American Educational Theatre Journal, XVII (October 1965), 220-224.
21. “Integrity of Composition in the Poems of Hemingway,” The University Review (Fall 1965), 51-58.
22. “The Natural Context of Spiritual Renewal in Milton’s Samson Agonistes,” Ball State University Forum, VI (Autumn 1965), 55-59.
23. “Cultural Resurgence in Philippine Literature: In Tagalog,” Literature East and West (Winter 1965), 16-26.
24. “Wordsworth and Political Commitment,” The Dalhousie Review, 45 (November 1965), 299-306.
25. “Keats’s ‘Ode to a Nightingale,'” Saint Louis University Quarterly, III (September 1965), 343-362.
26. “Explication of Emerson’s ‘Each and All,'” Emerson Society Quarterly: A Journal of the American Renaissance, 43 (2nd Quarter, 1966), 106-109.
27. “Similarity and Contiguity in Some Poems of Gongora,” Kentucky Foreign Language Quarterly, XLIII (First Quarter 1966), 43-50. Winner of the Susan B. Anthony Prize for Comparative Literature, Harvard University, May 1964.
28. “Tradition and Individuality in the Poems of Andrew Marvell,” Centro Escolar University Faculty and Graduate Journal (First Semester, 1966-67), 1-20.
29. “Symbolic Significance in the Poems of Emerson,” Saint Louis Quarterly, IV (March 1966), 37-54.
30. “Translation and Philippine Poetics,” The East-West Review, II (Spring-Summer 1966), 279-290.
31. “Panitikan: A Critical Introduction to Tagalog Literature,” Asian Studies, IV (December 1966), 412-429.
32. “The Structure of Narrative Fiction,” Saint Louis Quarterly, IV (December 1966), 485-502.
33. “The Form of Experience in Literature,” University of the East College Journal (First Semester 1966), 103-117.
34. “Orientations of Max Weber’s Concept of Charisma,” The Centennial Review, XI (Spring 1967), 270-285.
35. “Coleridge’s ‘The Eolian Harp’ as Lyric Paradigm,” The Personalist, XLVIII (January 1967), 77-88.
36. “Criticism as Elucidation,” The Scholar [Centro Escolar University, Manila] (Feb.-March 1967), 23-25, 27.
37. “The Form of Experience in Edgar Allan Poe’s Poetry,” Georgia Review (Spring 1967), 65-80.
38. “Ruskin and Exuberance/Control in Literature,” Orbis Litterarum, XXIII (December 1968), 257-264.
39. “Scientific Objectivity and Style: Notes on the Prose of Darwin and Faraday,” The Researcher 1 (May 1968), 87-92.
40. “Notes Toward a Clarification of Organizing Principles and Genre Theory,” Genre, I (October 1968), 257-268.
41. “Antaeus: Reality and the American Imagination,” Exchange: USIS Philippines, 40 (1968), 1-10.
42. “On the Motif of Incongruence in Samson Agonistes,” Orbis Litterarum, XXIII (October 1968), 221-224.
43. “Style and World Outlook in Pilipino Poetics,” The Researcher, I,3 (November 1968), 271-282.
44. “Rizal: Existence and the Dialectic of Reason,” The Researcher, I (Feb. 1969), 403-424; reprint of “Rizal and the Human Condition: Some Preliminary Notes,” University College Journal, VII (1964-65), 135-154.
45. “‘Eveline’: Joyce’s Affirmation of Ireland,” Eire-Ireland, IV (Winter 1969), 46-52.
46. “Joyce’s ‘The Boarding House’: The Plot of Character,” The University Review, XXXV (March 1969), 229-236.
47. “Transformations of the Feminine Psyche in Vanity Fair,” The Researcher, II (1969), 293-312.
48. “From Contingency to Probability: Joyce’s ‘A Painful Case,'” Research Studies, 37 (June 1969), 139-144.
49. “Epilogue” to Amado V. Hernandez, Mga Ibong Mandaragit [Birds of Prey]. Quezon City: Graphics, 1969.
50. “Carlos Bulosan: The Poetics and the Necessity of Revolution,” The Researcher, II (August 1969), 113-125.
51. “The Form and Meaning of T. S. Eliot’s ‘Gerontion,'” Renascence, XXII (Winter 1970), 115-126.
52. “Prolegomena to Philippine Poetics,” Comparative Literature Studies, VII (Summer 1970), 179-194.
53. “Introduction” to La Loba Negra. Quezon City: Malaya, 1970, vi-xxx.
54. “Theme Versus Imitation: D.H. Lawrence’s ‘The Rocking-Horse Winner,'” The D.H.Lawrence Review, III (Summer 1970), 136-140, included in Thomas L. Erskine and Gerald R. Barrett, eds., From Fiction to Film: D.H. Lawrence’s The Rocking Horse Winner (Encino, California, 1974).
55. “Form and Meaning in Joyce’s ‘Ivy Day in the Committee Room,'” Archiv fur das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, 207 (1970), 185-91.
56. “Reflections on The Hounds of the Baskervilles,” The Baker Street Journal, XX (September 1970), 137-139.
57. “Method and Meaning in Joyce’s ‘The Sisters,'” Die Neueren Sprachen, IV (Winter 1971), 490-496.
58. “The Problem of Continuity in Literary Form,” Southeast Asian Quarterly, V, 3-4 (1971), 25-28.
59. “Yeats’s ‘Sailing to Byzantium’ and the Limits of Modern Literary Criticism,” Revue des Langues Vivantes, XXXVIII (1972), 492-507. Included in Twentieth Century Literary Criticism, Vol. 116, ed. Linda Pavlovski (Thompsonville, MI: Gale Group, 2002).
60. “Reactionary Ideology in Philippine Culture,”Journal of Contemporary Asia, 3.4 (Winter 1973), 414-426.
61. “Marxism and the Poetics of Georg Lukacs,” Queens Quarterly, LXXX (Winter 1973), 547-555.
62. “The Process of Self-Knowledge in William Wordsworth’s ‘Ode: Intimations of Immortality,” Revue des Langues Vivantes, XLI (1975), 60-67. Reprint of “Wordsworth’s Immortality Ode and the Dialectic of the Imagination,’ The Researcher, III, 1 (Jan.-March 1971), 25-34.
63. “The Artist in the Philippine National Democratic Revolution,” Third World Forum (May-June 1975), 3-18; another version in “Art, Literature and Revolution in the Philippines,” The Palestine Review (Jan.-Feb. 1981), 6-10.
64. “Art Against Imperialism” in The Weapons of Criticism, ed. Norman Rudich (Palo Alto: Ramparts, 1975), 147-160. Reprinted from Journal of Contemporary Asia, 4.3 (1974), 297 -307. Shorter versions in: Praxis 1 (Spring 1975) and Arts in Society, XII (Summer-Fall 1975), 222-225.
65. “In the Belly of the Monster: The Filipino Revolt in the U.S.,” Praxis 3 (Winter/Spring 1976-77), 60-66.
66. “Introduction” to The Philippines is in the Heart: Selected Stories by Carlos Bulosan. Edited by E. San Juan. Quezon City: New Day Press, 1978, vi-x.
67. “Literature and Revolution in the Third World,” Social Praxis (Toronto/The Hague), VI (1979), 19-34.
68. “Red Star Over Kansas?” Main Trend (Winter 1979), 22-23.
69. “Introduction” [Special issue: Writings of Carlos Bulosan. Edited by E. San Juan], AmerAsia Journal (May 1979), 3-29.
70. “Blueprint for Disaster,” Science for the People (Jan.-Feb., 1980), 23-26. Reprinted in Alternative Papers, ed. Elliott Shore, Pat Case and Laura Daly. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1982.
71. “For Whom Are We Writing?” in Two Perspectives on Philippine Literature and Society. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Center for Philippine Studies, 1981.
72. “Out of the Heart of Darkness, An Explosion: On the Kenyan Novelist Ngugi’s Petals of Blood,” Theoretical Review (Sept.-October 1981), 31-33.
73. “From Intramuros to the Liberated City: Salvaging the Aesthetics of the Polis,” Philippine Social Sciences and Humanities Review, XLVI, 3-4 (July-Dec. 1982), 249-274. Revised versions in: “The Poetics of the Metropolis in Philippine Literature,” Jadavpur Journal of Comparative Literature (1984), 34-58; “Encircle the Cities by the Countryside: The City in Philippine Writing,” Journal of South Asian Literature 25.1 (Winter/Spring 1990): 189-213.
74. “Amiri Baraka, Revolutionary Playwright,” Amiri Baraka: The Kaleidoscopic Torch, ed. James Gwynne (New York: 1985), 151-156.
75. “Overthrowing U.S. Hegemony: Dialectics of U.S.-Philippines Literary Relations,” Minnesota Review (Spring 1986), 61-82.
76. “Toward a Verdict on Nick Joaquin,” The New Progressive Review (Dec.1985-Jan.1986), 13-20.
77. “Pacifying the Boondocks: U.S. Cultural Imperialism in the Philippines,” Diliman Review (1987), 35-46, translated into German: “Die Befriedung der ‘boondocks’: US Kulturimperialismus auf den Philippinen,” Peripherie, 29 (Jan. 1988), 24-44.
78. “Textual Production in D.H. Lawrence’s ‘The Horse Dealer’s Daughter,'” De La Salle University Graduate Journal, XXII, 2 (1987), 223-230.
79. “Nature, History and the Organizing Principle of Wuthering Heights,” De La Salle Graduate Journal, XIII, 1 (1988), 67-82.
80. “Reflections on Philippines-U.S. Literary Relations,” Ang Makatao [Asian Institute, Manila] VII, 1 (Jan.-June 1988), 43-54.
81. “Ideology, Text, History: A Contextual Interpretation and Critique of Fiction by Filipino Writers,” Kultura, I (1988), 7-17.
82. “Towards A Poetics of National Liberation: Reflections of A Third World Cultural Activist,” Left Curve, 13 (1988-89), 61-66.
83. “Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar: Brecht’s Exemplum for the Third World?” Communications [International Brecht Society], 18 (1989), 27-33.
84. “Approaching Third World Cultural Revolution: The Philippine Conjuncture,” Solidaridad II (July-Dec. 1988), 55-58.
85. “Strategies of Reading: Sexual Politics in Aida Rivera-Ford’s ‘Love in the Cornhusks’,” Southeast Asia Journal 17 (1988-89), 15-24.
86. “Preface to the Nick Joaquin Project,” Southeast Asia Journal 17.2 (1988-89): 8-14.
87. “Ideology, Form, Desire: Toward a New Marxist Perspective on Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls,” Left Curve 14 (1990), 75-77.
88. “Western Sociological Literary Theory: An Introduction,” Philippine Sociological Review 35:3-4 (July-December 1987), 42-54.
89. “Problems in the Marxist Project of Theorizing Race.” Rethinking Marxism 2:2 (Summer 1989), 58-80.
90. “The Devil’s Advocate Prophesies the Advent of Deconstruction,” Diliman Review 37.3 (1989), 8-10. Reprinted as “The Power of Writing and the Question of Truth,” Southeast Asia Journal 18.2 (1989-90), 11-16.
91. “Race and Literary Theory: From Difference to Contradiction,” Proteus 7:1 (Spring 1990), 32-36; also in Southeast Asia Journal 18.1 (1989-90): 2-9.
92. “From Class to People and Nation: On the December Coup, Hegemonic Crisis, and the Strategy for National Liberation,” Diliman Review 37.4 (1989): 1-10; also in Midweek (31 January 1990): 13-19.
93. “Images of the Filipino in the United States.” Prisoners of Image: Ethnic and Gender Stereotypes. New York City: Alternative Museum, 1989.
94. “Farewell, You whose homeland is forever arriving as I embark,” Kultura 3:1 (August 1990), 34-41.
95. “Literature and Nationalism,” Tenggara 27 (1990): 50-59.
96. “From Lukacs to Brecht and Gramsci: The Moment of Practice in Critical Theory,” Nature, Society, and Thought 4.1/2 (January-April 1991): 81-102; an early version is “The Politics of Aesthetics: Praxis in Marxist Critical Theory,” Praxis 2:2 (June 1988): 64-83.
97. “The Sexual Fix in Rizal’s “Memorias de Un Estudiante de Manila por P. Jacinto,” The DLSU Graduate Journal, 15:1 (1990): 85-95.
98. “Articulating the Filipino Otherness: Reflections on Philippine-U.S. Literary Relations,” Philippine-American Journal 1:4 (Summer-Fall 1990): 6-10.
99. “The Political Economy of the Psyche in the Text of Stevan Javellana’s Without Seeing the Dawn (1947),” Kinaalam 3.1 (1989-90): 1-9.
100. “History, Textuality, Revolution: Sergio Ramirez’s To Bury Our Fathers,” Likha 11.2 (1989-90): 48-62.
101. “From Bakhtin to Gramsci: Intertextuality, Praxis, Hegemony,” New Orleans Review (Spring 1991): 75-85.
102. “Mapping the Boundaries: The Filipino Writer in the U.S.A.,” The Journal of Ethnic Studies 19:1 (Spring 1991): 117-31.
103. “The Cult of Ethnicity and the Fetish of Pluralism: A Counterhegemonic Critique,” Cultural Critique 18 (Spring 1991): 215-229; another version appeared as “Race, Ethnicity and Literary Culture in the United States,” Philippine American Studies Journal III (1991): 21-35.
104. “Symbolisierung des Widerstands auf den Philippinen,” Das Argument [Berlin], No. 187 (1991): 409-420. Also in Philippine Resource Center Monitor 9 (November 1990): 1, 3-5, 8, 11-12; another version in Chapter III of From People to Nation (see #25, book list).
105. “To Read What Was Never Written: From Deconstruction to the Poetics of Redemption,” Orbis Litterarum 46 (Fall 1991): 205-221. A revised version: “Criticism, Language, Hermeneutics,” Revue de litterature comparee 4 (Oct-Dec. 1991): 397-408.
106. “Beyond Identity Politics: The Predicament of the Asian American Writer in Late Capitalism,” American Literary History 3.3 (Fall 1991): 542-565.
107. “Theorizing Anti-Racist Struggle,” Against the Current, 6.4 (September-October 1991): 27-33.
108. “Cultural Pluralism versus Hegemony: Ethnic Studies in the Twenty First Century,” The Massachusetts Review, 32.3 (Fall 1991): 467-78. A shortened version is “Racism, Ideology, Resistance,” Forward Motion 10.3 (September 1991): 35-42.
109. “Post-Colonial Syncretism versus Art of National Liberation,” ARIEL 22.4 (October 1991): 69-88.
110. “Who’s Afraid of Mikhail Bakhtin?” The Arkansas Quarterly 1.4 (October 1992): 344-48.
111. “Semiotics and Fiction,” U.P. Visayas Journal 1.1 (August 1992): 67-75.
112. “Ideological Form, Symbolic Exchange, Textual Production: A Symptomatic Reading of Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls,” North Dakota Quarterly (Spring 1992): 119-143.
113. “From Development to Liberation–The Third World in the ‘New World Order.'” In Kenneth Bauzon, ed., Development and Democratization in the Third World. Washington DC: Crane Russak, 1992. 297-310.
114. “Documenting the Struggle for Democratic Culture,” Works and Days 20 (Fall 1992): 119-124; also in The St. Louis Journalism Review (March 1993), 15.
115. “Symbolizing the Asian Diaspora in the United States: A Return to the Primal Scene of Deracination.” Border/Lines 24/25 (1992): 23-29. Revised version: “Migration, Ethnicity, Racism: Narrative Strategies in Asian American Writing,” Migration Themes (1979), 189-216.
116. “Toward Marx and Beyond,” Polygraph 6/7 (Winter 1993), 72-86.
117. “In Search of Filipino Writing: Reclaiming Whose America?” in The Ethnic Canon. Ed. David Palumbo-Liu. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1994. A shortened version found in Philippine Studies 41 (1993): 141-66. Reprinted in Asian American Studies: A Reader edited by Jean Yu-wen Shen Wu and Min Song (Rutgers University Press, 2000), 443-466.
118. “Reconstituting the “American Nation”: The Politics of Racism and Nationalism in the United States,” Nature, Society and Thought, 5.4 (Spring 1993): 307-19.
119. “Can’t We Get Along? The Politics of Racial Difference in an Age of Hegemonic Pluralism,” The Arkansas Quarterly 2.3 (July 1993): 168-176.
120. “The Resistance to Postcolonial Transnationalism: Allegorizing Nation/People in Philippine Writing,” Parenthesis 1.2 (Fall 1993): 25-32; also in The Discourse of Vision: The Meeting Point of Popular Culture and Art. Ed. Tsuneo Kenachi, Shoichi Maeda, and Yuichi Midzunoe. Tokyo, 1994. 43-61.
Revised versions appeared as: “From Postcolonial to Alter/native National Allegory: Dialectics of Nation/People and World System in Philippine Writing, Journal of English Studies 1.2 (December 1993): 28-42; “Von der postkolonialen zur alter/nativen nationalen Allegorie,” Weg und Ziel 5 (November 1993): 52-58; and in Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Eds. Wolfgang Zach and Ken L. Goodwin, eds. Stauffenburg, Germany: Stauffenburg Verlag, 1996, pp. 569-577.
121. “The Predicament of Filipinos in the United States,” The State of Asian America. Ed. Karin A. San Juan. Boston: South End Press, 1994. 205-18. A shorter version: “Filipinos in the United States at the Threshold of the Twenty-first Century,” Heritage 6.3 (September 1992): 6-8; 6.4 (December 1992): 6-8.
122. “Producing the Text: A Symptomatic Reading of D. H. Lawrence’s ‘Odour of Chrysanthemums,'” The Arkansas Review 3.1 (May 1994): 47-62.
123. “Problematizing Multiculturalism and the ‘Common Culture,’ MELUS 19.2 (Summer 1994): 59-84.
124. “Configuring the Filipino Diaspora in the United States,” Diaspora 3.2 (Fall 1994): 117-133. Reprinted in Race and Ethnic Relations 96/97. Ed. John A. Kromkowski. 5th edition. Guilford, Ct: Dushkin Publishing Group, 1996, pp. 139-145.
125. “Hugh MacDiarmid: Sketch of a Materialist Poetics,” Nature, Society, and Thought 6.4 (October 1993; issued 1995): 411-36.
126. “Bulosan: Writing for World Revolution, for People’s Liberation, ” Diliman Review 41, 3-4 (1993): 9-13. Another version appeared as: “Carlos Bulosan” in The American Radical . Ed. Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Harvey Kaye. New York: Routledge, 1994, pp. 253-260.
127. “James Baldwin’s Allegory of Black Self-Determination,” The Discourse of Multiplicity. Ed. Tsuneo Kunachi, Shoichi Maeda, and Yuichi Midzunoe. Tokyo, Japan: Taga-shuppan, 1995., pp. 5-35.
128. “From the ‘Boondocks’ to the ‘Belly of the Beast’: What We Can Learn from the Life-History of a Filipino Worker-Intellectual,” Mediations 19.1 (Spring 1995): 76-91.
129. “On the Limits of Postcolonial Theory: Trespassing Letters from the Third World,” ARIEL (August 1995): 89-115. Translated into German by Joachim Eggers: “Uber die Grenzen ‘postkolonialer’ Theorie: Kassiber aus der ‘Dritten Welte,’ ” Das Argument 215 (1996): 361-372.
130 “From National Allegory to the Performance of the Joyful Subject: Reconstituting Philip Vera Cruz’s Life,” Amerasia Journal 21.3 (1995-1996): 137-54.
131. “Postcolonial Theory Versus Philippine Reality: Regrounding the Diasporic Psyche in History and Praxis.” Working Papers in Asian/Pacific Studies . Durham, North Carolina: Duke University, Asian Pacific Studies Institute, 1996. Another version appeared as: “Postcolonial Theory and Philippine Reality: The Challenge of a Third World Culture to Global Capitalism,” Left Curve 20 (1996): 87-102.
132. “Articulations of Sexuality, Race, and Nationalism in Contemporary United States.” In Nationalism and Sexuality: Crises of Identity. Ed. Yiorgos Kalogeras and Domna Pastourmatzi. Thessaloniki, Greece: Hellenic Association of American Studies, 1996, pp. 199-214. French translation: “Articulations entre sexualite et nationalisme aux Etats-Unis,” L’Homme et la Societe (Paris: Editions L’Harmattan, 1996): 67-83.
133. “Foreword,” Inside Ethnic America: An Ethnic Studies Reader. Ed. R. Perry and L. Eason. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.
134. Selections in Returning a Borrowed Tongue. Ed. Nick Carbo. Minneapolis: Coffee House Press, 1995.
135. “Beyond Postcolonial Theory: The Mass Line in C.L.R. James’s Imagination,” The Journal of Commonwealth Literature (August 1996): 25-44.
136. “The Revolutionary Aesthetics of Friedrich Engels,” Nature, Society and Thought 8.4 (1995): 405-32.
German translation: “Was wir aus Engels’ revolutionarer Asthetik lernen konnen,” Zwischen Utopia und Kritik, edited by Theodor Bergmann et al (Hamburg: Verlag Hamburg, 1996): 68-94.
137. “Against Post-Colonial Theory: The Challenge of the Philippine Revolution,” Diliman Review 43: 3/4 (1995): 55-67.
138. “Rizal’s Novels: Ideology, Class Consciousness, History,” Diliman Review 44.2 (1996): 10-22.
139. “The Challenge of U.S. Asians in the Year 2000,” Philippine News (Jan. 22-28, 1997: B1; (Jan. 29-Feb. 1997): B1. Shortened version in: Asian Week (Jan. 3-9): 7.
140. “Asian American Literary Studies and Its Discontents: From the ‘Melting Pot” into the Fires of Los Angeles,” Left Curve 21 (1997): 98-107. A revised version appeared as “Commodity Fetishism and the Value Forms of Ethnic Discourse,” Tenggara 39 (1997): 109-126. A Chinese version appeared in Taipeh, Taiwan, translated by Pei-chen Wu: “Ya Yi Mei Guo Ren Zai Mei Guo Kung Jian Li Hsun Zhao Wei Chih,” Con-Temporary Monthly January 2001): 122-133.
141. “Culture Wars: Truces, Stalemates, Negotiations,” CEA Critic 59.3 (Spring-Summer 1997): 1-18.
142. “Antonio Gramsci on Surrealism and the Avantgarde” (in German), Weg und Ziel [Vienna, Austria] 2 (1997): 4-10.
143. “Bakhtin and Philippine Writing in English.” World Literature Today 71.3 (Summer 1997): 541-44.
144. “Fragments from a Filipino Exile’s Journal,” Amerasia Journal 23.2 (1997): 1-25.
145. “Toward a Critique of Orthodox Ethnic Studies” Explorations in Ethnic Studies 18.2
(July 1995): 131-144.
146. “Ethnicity” (entry for Volume 2, Historisch-Kritisches Worterbuch des Marxismus, edited by Wolfgang Fritz Haug published by Argument, Berlin and Hamburg, Germany, 1997): 915-925.
147. “Narrativizing U.S.-Philippines ‘Postcolonial’ Relations: Gender, Identity Politics, Nation in the Novels of Jessica Hagedorn,” Gramma 5 (1997): 165-182. Shorter version: “In Pursuit of The Gangster of Love,” Philippine Studies 46 (First Quarter 1998): 111-121. Revised version: “Transforming Identity in Postcolonial Narrative: An Approach to the Novels of Jessica Hagedorn,” PostIdentity 1.2 (Summer 1998): 5-28.
148. “Migration, Ethnicity, Racism: Narrative Strategies in Asian American Writing,” Migration Themes/Migracijske teme [Zagreb, Croatia] 13 (1997): 189-216.
149. “Dialectics and History: Power, Knowledge, Agency in Rizal’s Discourses,” Diliman Review, 45.2-3 (1997): 60-75.
150. “Raymond Williams on Cultural Revolution,” Left Curve No. 22 (1998): 88-98. Reprinted as: “Raymond Williams and the Radical Project of Cultural Studies,” Danyag 1.2 (December 1996): 118-137.
151. “One Hundred Years of Producing and Reproducing the ‘Filipino,’ Amerasia Journal 24.2 (Summer 1998): 1-34.
152. “Kidlat Tahimik: Cinema of the ‘Naïve’ Subaltern in the Shadow of Global Capitalism,” Communal/Plural: Journal of Transnational and Crosscultural Studies 6.2 (October 1998): 171-187. A revised version appeared in Geopolitics of the Visible edited by Roland Tolentino (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2001).
153. “The Discourse of Edward Said,” Against the Current 77 (November-December 1998): 28-32.
154. “Gramsci, Cesaire, Benjamin: Tracking Surrealism Across Multi-Critical Boundaries,” Compar(a)ison II (1997; appeared Dec. 1998): 129-156.
155. “Filipinos.” In Encyclopedia of the American Left. Ed. Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 224-226.
156. “Interview with Joon Park: E. San Juan Lives Dangerously through ‘Commitment,’ “ The Asian Pacific American Journal 7.1 (Spring-Summer 1998): 100-109.
157. “The Symbolic Economy of Gender, Class and Nationality in Filipina Migrant Workers’ Narratives,” Lila: Asia-Pacific Women’s Studies Journal 7 (1998): 20-41.
158. “Multiculturalism or Emancipation,” Against the Current 78 (January-February 1999): 22-25. Revised version: “The Question of Race in the 21st Century,” Dialogue and Initiative (Spring 1999): 31-34.
159. “The Multiculturalist Problematic in the Age of Globalized Capitalism,” Left Curve 23 (1999): 60-64. A longer and revised version appeared in Discourse on Multilingual Cultures, ed. Yuichi Midzunoe (Tokyo, Japan: Taga Shuppan, 1999): 557-578.
160. “From the Immigrant Paradigm to the Praxis of Transformative Critique” in Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality in the United States: Toward the Twenty-first Century, edited by Paul Wong (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999): 34-54.
161. “Fanon: An Intervention into Cultural Studies,” FranFanon: Critical Perspectives, ed. Anthony Alessandri (New York: Routledge, 1999): 126-145.
162. “Raymond Williams and Idea of Cultural Revolution,” College Literature 26.2 (Spring 1999): 118-136.
163. “Who speaks now? For whom? For what purpose?” The Asian Reporter 9.18 (May 4-10, 1999): 6. Reprinted in Panay News xxix, 100 (July 11, 1999): 4, 11.
164. “De-Centering Ethnicity: The Situation of Asian Americans in Contemporary Global Capitalism,” Gramma 6 (1998): 135-150.
165. “Postcolonialism and Uneven Development,” Danyag 3.1 (June 1998): 57-68.
166. “The Limits of Postcolonial Theory and the Cultural Politics of Raymond Williams,” Mediations (Spring 1999): 30-36.
167. “Reflections on Philippine Society and Culture at the End of the Century,” Pacific Enterprise 2, 1 (Winter 1999): 14-15, 23-25, 32. Reprinted in: Diliman Review 46.3-4 (1998): 84-90; and in Philippine Graphic (July 12, 1999): 28-31.
168. “The Question of Race in the 21st Century,” Dialogue and Initiative (Spring 1999): 31-34.
169. “Thinking Beyond Postcolonialism: An Interview with Epifanio San Juan, Jr.” by Ping-hui Liao,” Tamkang Review xxix.4 (Summer 1999): 139-147. Translated into Chinese by Shu-hui tsai, “Chao yue hou zhi min lun shu de si wei: fang wen Epifanio San Juan, Jr.,” Con-temporary Monthly 12.1 (1999): 88-95.
170. “The Filipino Diaspora and the Centenary of the Philippine Revolution,” in Journey of 100 Years. Ed. Cecilia Manguerra Brainard and Edmundo Litton (Santa Monica, CA: Philippine American Women Writers and Artists, 1999): 135-158.
171. “Menchu/Silko Interrogates Postmodernism,” Pretexts 8.1 (July 1999): 51-58.
172. “Bakhtin: Uttering the ‘(Into)Nation’ of the Nation/People,” Bakhtin and the Nation edited by Donald Wesling et al (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2000): 118-133.
173. “Establishment Postcolonialism and Its Alter/Native Others,” in Dislocating Postcoloniality: Essays on American Culture edited by C. Richard King (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press 2000): 171-200. An Italian translation is “Postcolonialismo e sviluppo ineguale,” Marxismo oggi XII. 3 (Settembre-Diciembre, 1999): 35-46.
174. “From Chinatown to Gunga Din Highway,” Left Curve No. 24 (Spring 2000): 58-68.
175. “The Multiculturalist Problematic in the Age of Globalized Capitalism,” Social Justice 27.1 (Spring 2000): 61-75.
176. “The Limits of Ethnicity and the Horizon of Historical Materialism” in Asian American Studies edited by Esther Ghymn (New York: Peter Lang, 2000): 9-34. A revised version has been translated into Chinese by Lisa Wu, National Tsing Hua University, under the title: “Ya yi mei guo ren zai mei guo kung jian li hsun zhao wei chih,” Chung-Wai Literary Monthly (Taiwan: 2000).
177. “The Limits of Contemporary Cultural Studies,”Connecticut Review xxii.2 (Fall 2000): 35-45. Reprinted in The Lyceum Review [Manila, Philippines] Millenium Series, No. 1 (2000): 33-38.
178. “Postcolonialism y desarollo desigual,” Casa de las Americas 219 (April-June 2000), 26-34. Italian version (see #172)
179. “Reconfiguring the History of Filipinos in the United States,” BLU Magazine 8: 55. Other versions appeared in The Asian Reporter (October 2000) and in Filipino American Bulletin (Jan-Feb. 2000).
180. “Aime Cesaire’s Poetics of Fugitive Intervention,” Third Text 53 (Winter 2000-01), 3-18. German translation: “Aime Cesaire Poetik des Augstands,” Das Argument 252 (2003), 668-682. A revised version appeared as “Aime Cesaire and Surrealism,” Working Papers Series on Historical Systems, Peoples, and Cultures (Bowling Green State University, Ohio); and in a longer version as “Surrealism and Revolution,” a special issue of Working Papers in Cultural Studies (Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Comparative American Cultures, 2000). French translation by Alice Boheme, in the WEB page on surrealism sponsored by Prof. Henri Behar of the Sorbonne <http://www.cavi.univ-paris3.fr/Rech_sur>
181. “Trajectories of the Filipino Diaspora,” Ethnic Studies Report xviii.2 (July 2000), 229-244. A revised version appeared as “The Filipino Diaspora,” Philippine Studies 49 (Second Quarter 2001), 255-264. A
shorter version appeared as “Filipinizing Diasporic Re/turns,” DisOrient 9 (2001), 45-55.
182. “Cultural Studies—A Reformist or Revolutionary Force for Social Change?” Tamkang Review 31.2 (Winter 2000): 1-29. A revised version appeared in the on-line journal Kritika Kultura 1.1 (February 2002) sponsored by the English Department, Ateneo University <http://www.ateneo.edu/dpts/english/kk>
183. “Toward Cultural Revolution: A Critique of Contemporary Cultural Studies,” Special issue of Working Papers in Cultural Studies (Washington State University, Pullman, WA: Department of Comparative American Cultures, 2001). Partial translation into French: “Politique des Cultural Studies contemporaines,” L’Homme et la Societe, 149 (2003), 105-124. See also, for another version, “From Birmingham to Angkor Watt: Demarcations of Cultural Studies,” the WEB page of Kritika Kultura <www.ateneo.edu/kritika kultura>
184. “Diyalektika at Materyalismong Pangkasaysayan sa Diskurso ni Rizal,” Malay [Manila, Philippines] xvi.1 (Agosto 2001): 1-18.
185. “Interrogating the Postcolonial Alibi: A Testimony from the Filipino Diaspora,” New Literatures Review 37 (Summer 2000): 85-112.
186. “From Chinatown to Gunga Din Highway,” Ethnic Studies Review 24.1-3 (2001): 1-28. A shorter version appeared as “From Fantasy to Strategy: Frank Chin’s Cultural Revolution,” Tamkang Review 31.3 (Spring 2001): 1-14.
187. “Culture and Freedom in People’s Liberation Struggles,” Dialogue and Initiative (Fall-Winter 2001): 21-24.
188. “Symbolic Violence and the Fetishism of the Sublime: a metacommentary on David Hwang’s M. Butterfly,” Journal of Intercultural Studies 23.1 (2002): 33-46.
189. “Post-Colonialism and the Question of Nation-State Violence,” Denver University Law Review 78.4 (2001): 887-905. A revised version is: “Nationalism, the Postcolonial State and Violence,” Left Curve 26 (2002): 36-44. Reprinted as “Postcolonialism and the Question of Nation-State Violence in the Age of Late Capitalism,” Lyceum Review [Manila, Philippines], Millennium Series, No. 2 (2001): 16-32.
190. “Cultural Studies Amongs the Sharks: The Struggle Over Hawaii,” Third Text 16.1 (2002): 71-78.
191. “Interrogating Transmigrancy, Remapping Diaspora: The Globalization of Laboring Filipinos/as,” Discourse 23.3 (Fall 2001): 52-74. A revised version appeared as “Postcolonial Discourse, Diasporic Critique: Filipina Migrant Narratives in the Shadow of Globalization,” Journal of Asian-Pacific Affairs 4.1 (2002): 19-48. Reprinted as “Interrogating Transnationalism: The Case of the Filipino Diaspora in the Age of Globalized Capitalism,” Diliman Review 51.1-2 (2003), 5-22.
192. “Postcolonialism and the Problematic of Uneven Development” in Marxism, Modernity and Postcolonial Studies, ed. Crystal Bartolovich and Neil Lazarus (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002): 221-239.
193. “The Poverty of Postcolonialism,” Pretexts (Summer 2002): 57-74.
194. “Nation-State, Postcolonial Thought, and Global Violence,” Social Analysis 46.2 (Summer 2002), 11-32.
195. “Antonio Gramsci on Surrealism and the Avant-garde,” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 37.2 (Summer 2003), 31-45.
196. “Spinoza and the War of Racial Terrorism, Left Curve, No. 27, 62-72.
197. “Fundamentals of Cultural Studies: Extrapolations from Selected Texts of Raymond Williams,” Keywords: A Journal of Cultural Materialism 4 (2003), 78-93.
198. “The Imperialist War on Terrorism and the Responsibility of Cultural Studies,” Arena Journal 20 (2002-2003), 45-56. A revised version: “U.S. Imperial Terror, cultural studies, and the national liberation struggle in the Philippines,” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 4-3 (2003), 516-523. Reprined in Diliman Review 50.4 (2003), 39-46. A shorter version: “U.S. War on Terrorism and the Filipino Struggle for National Liberation,” Dialogue and Initiative (Fall 2003), 2-6. An expanded version appeared as: “Imperialist War Against Terrorism and Revolution in the Philippines,” Left Curve 28 (2004), 40-56.
199. “Challenging Contemporary American Studies,” The Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies 25.4 (October-December 2003), 303-333
200. “Marxism and the Race/Class Problematic: A Rearticulation,” Cultural Logic (2003) <http://eserver.org/clogic/2003/sanjuan.html> Reprinted in Diliman Review 51.3 (2004), 6-15.
201. “Aime Cesaire’s Insurrectionary Poetics,” in Surrealism, Politics and Culture,edited by Raymond Spiteri and Donald LaCoss (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2003), 226-245.
202. “On the Filipino Diaspora and the Crisis in the Philippines,” St. John’s University Humanities Review 2.1 (Fall 2003), 81-99.
203. “ ‘Filipino’ Speech-Acts—Weapons for Self-Determination of the Filipino Nationality in the U.S.,” Danyag 7.1 (June 2002; published 2003): 29-46. Reprinted in Diliman Review 50.4 (2003), 3-12; also in . KritikaKultura 5 (Dec. 2004): 70-86 <http://www.ateneo.edu/kritikakultura> A longer version appeared as: “Inventing Vernacular Speech-Acts: Articulating Filipino Self-Determination in the United States,” Socialism and Democracy 19.1 (March 2005), 136-154.
204. “Knowledge, Representation, Truth: Learning from Charles Sanders Peirce’s Semiotics,” St. John’s University Humanities Review 2.2 (May 2004), 15-37.
205. “The Field of English in the Cartography of Globalization,” Philippine Studies 52.1 (2004), 94-118.
206. “Postcolonial Dialogics: Between Edward Said and Antonio Gramsci,” Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies 11,1-2 (2004), 56-74.
207. “From Race to Class Struggle: Re-problematizing Critical Race Theory,” Michigan Journal of Race and Law 11.1 (Fall 2005), 75-98.
208. “Preparing for the Time of Reparation: Du Bois, G. Jackson, Abu Jamal,” Souls 7.2 (2005), 63-74.
208. “Toward a Decolonizing Indigenous Psychology in the Philippines: Introducing Sikolohiyang Pilipino,” Journal for Cultural Research 10.1 (Jan. 2006), 47-67.
209. “Edward Said’s Affiliations: Secular humanism and Marxism,” Atlantic Studies 3.1 (April
210. “Ethnic Identity and Popular Sovereignty: Notes on the Moro Struggle in the Philippines,” Ethnicities 6.3 (Sept. 2006), 391-422.
210. “Carlos Bulosan, Filipino Writer-Activist,” New Centennial Review 8.1 (Winter 2008), 103-
211. “Internationalizing the U.S. Ethnic Canon: Revisiting Carlos Bulosan,” Comparative
American Studies (June 2008): 123-143.
212. “Joyce/Ibsen: Dialectics of Aesthetic Modernism,” Orbis Litterarum 63.4 (2008): 267-284.
Editorial Activities: Editor, Working Papers in Race, Ethnicity and Cultural Studies Series (Dept of Comparative American Cultures, Washington State University, 1998-2001); Editorial Board, Atlantic Studies, AmerAsia Journal, Left Curve, Kultura Kritika, Cultural Logic, and Nature, Society, and Thought. Member, American Studies Association; Modern Language Association; National Writers Union; ACLU, American PEN.